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市场营销组合中的最重要的”P“为何物

市场营销组合中的最重要的”P“为何物What is the Most Important “P” in the Marketing Mix?
您的神酒或许已经赢得了十几枚金牌,或许有一个令人惊叹的展示(包装),再或许已经为你的目标市场做了精准定价, 还从你的凯安梗犬获得了5次摇尾赞许-– 但如若没有分销– 您的品牌将无处可去。
在美国,随着大型批发商每时每刻都在通过收购和合并获得经济效益,饮品分销变得越来越艰难。让这一趋势变得更加严重的是,到2019年底,美国将有多达12,000家啤酒厂,800多家苹果酒厂,近5,000家葡萄酒厂以及大量精酿烈性酒酿酒厂。所有这些生产商都会去争夺消费者的“胃纳占有率”以及数量有限的“特定品牌”的一级批发商。
01

当前模式
在绝大多数的美国市场,啤酒酿酒商必须通过批发商网络(也称为分销商)销售其酒水。这种分销过程的演变通常从自我式递送(self-delivery)开始,借此小型啤酒酿酒商(基于最大的桶数)可以出售给本地客户。由于大多数小公司没有管理分销部门的资源或专业知识,因此这一步骤很快变得非常繁琐且效率低下。
通过自我分销在初始客户中赢得关注之后,啤酒酿酒商会指定一个“二级”分销商,可以将他们的品牌带入内部&外部两种模式的(交易)客户账户当中。这些二级分销商也许还带有食品库存,但肯定会有助增加客户渗透率, 超过自我递送模式。这些较小的分销商可能拥有5-15辆卡车,工作人员可在局限的区域内进行连续递送。由于它们的规模问题,它们可能不会采用美国超市渠道,仅仅因为它们无法满足零售商的递送频率和覆盖范围。
In the majority of US markets, brewers must sell their liquids through a network of wholesalers, also known as distributors. The evolution of this distribution process typically begins with self-delivery whereby small brewers (based on a maximum barrelage) can sell to local accounts. This step becomes quickly tedious and inefficient as most small companies don’t have the resources or expertise to manage a distribution arm.
After gaining initial account traction via self-distribution, brewers appoint a “second tier” distributor that can take their brands into both On & Off Premise (Trade) accounts. These second tier distributors might also carry food SKUs but certainly increase account penetration over the self-delivery model. These smaller distributors might have a pool of 5-15 trucks and the personnel to make consistent deliveries within a confined territory.  Due to their size, they most likely don’t call on the US supermarket channel because they simply can’t accommodate the retailer’s delivery frequency and reach.
02
“大人物”
您的目标应该是接触到内部级别 – “一流水平的团队”分销商。在美国,每个主要的大都市通常都有一到三个这样的级别分销商。然而,目前的合并趋势将这一数字降至仅仅一或两个。与这些一流水平分销商中的一个进行产品展示对于一个量小且名不见经传的品牌来说令人生畏。您需要做一些功课,并能够在他们当地的外部和内部模式店中展现出品牌成功的销量。您还需要对营销以及“关键差异化优势或KDA” 进行描述。这一点很重要, 可以影响批发商高级管理团队, 从而获得授权批准。应该阐述是什么使您的系列产品可以在竞争中脱颖而出。对于您的品牌来说, 您的KDA要非常清晰,简洁且独特。
一旦加入,你的工作才正式步入开始阶段。大型批发商期望您的团队能够与他们的销售队伍一起在街头销售。如果你不提供全职“站街头”,那么获得第一级别分销渠道的可能性将极小。这就是为什么这么多进口和资金不足的品牌都被搁置在美国仓库内。有太多其他的品牌争夺有限的由赞助销售人员支持的地产。这很昂贵, 但如何在美国赢得该比赛。
Your goal should be to get to that inner-tier – the “Big League” distributors. In the US there are usually one to three in every major metro. The current consolidation trend, however, is bringing this figure down to just one or two.  Getting a product presentation with one of these Big League distributors can be daunting for a small volume, unknown brand.  You’ll need to do your homework and be able to show brand sales success in their local Off and On-Premise accounts. You’ll also want to include your marketing story and “Key Differentiating Advantage or KDA.” This important point is used to influence the wholesaler’s senior management team towards authorization approval. It should delineate just what makes your product line stand out amongst the competition. Your KDA needs to be clear, concise and unique to your brand.


聘请一名全职销售人员来敦促您的分销商以及外部&内部模式客户之后,您需要进营销售奖励方案来激励您的“内部消费者”来销售您的品牌。这又是由于大型分销商有太多的品牌在他们的产品组合当中。他们的销售团队自然会精挑细选那些能够通过月度销售计划提供额外收益的产品。那些被排除在计划之外的品牌经常被忽视掉。记住,大型批发商可能拥有多达100个品牌。随着越来越多的产品进入他们的仓库,销售团队基于每个客户的每个品牌所花费的销售时间就会越少。
那么该如何激励和培训这个至关重要的渠道呢?可以在每周分销销售会议上通过您的销售代理来完成。这些供应商演示机会非常适合对内部客户进行抽样,培训,激励以及“大使化”。这些会议是启动销售激励策略的最好时刻,这些激励计划应该具有创造性和乐趣,从而将其与月度销售计划中的许多其他激励计划区分开来。
记住, 销售人员只售卖他们喜欢的品牌。一定要成为这些品牌中的一个!欲了解更多关于该话题以及名为“城堡要塞(Castle Keep)”的策略, 请查看酿造人脉网(brewing network)上发布的播客” Shinerunner秀“。第4-8集: 详细分销,安排批发商以及如何激励这些至关重要的销售团队。
Once you’re in, your job is just beginning. The large wholesaler will expect your team to be on the streets selling alongside their sales force. If you don’t supply full-time “feet on the streets” your probability of gaining access to this first-tier distribution channel will be minimal. This is why so many imported and under-funded brands sit within US warehouses. There are just so many other brands vying for finite real estate that are supported by sponsored salespeople. This is expensive but how the game is won in the US.
After hiring a full-time sales person to call on both your distributor and Off and On-Premise accounts, you’ll want to run sales incentives to motivate your “internal customer” to sell your brand. This again is a function of large distributors having too many brands within their portfolios. Their sales teams naturally will cherry pick those that provide extra income through monthly sales programming. Brands that are left off plan are often neglected. Keep in mind that large wholesalers may have as many as 100 brands. With more products entering their house, the sales team spends even less time selling on a per brand basis per account.
So how do you motivate and educate this critical channel? That can be done through your sales rep at weekly distributor sales meetings. These supplier presentation opportunities are perfect for sampling, educating, motivating and “ambassadorizing” this internal customer. These meetings are also when you want to kick off your sales incentives which should be creative and fun so that they differentiate from the many others found on the monthly sales plan.
Remember, sales people SELL for brands they like. Be one of those brands!  For more on this topic and a strategy called, “Castle Keep” check out the podcast, “The Shinerunner Show” found on the Brewing Network. Episodes #4-8 detail distribution, appointing wholesalers and how to motivate these critical sales teams.

作为来自美国的IBWSS,我们致力于将厂家与中小型进口商、分销商、零售商汇聚一起,提供学习,建立网络,交易的机会。

2019年11月5日及6日,我们将在上海举办为期2天的散装葡萄酒及烈酒展,不仅有众多知名厂商参加展现,还有国内外外业界大咖人物参加。
市场营销组合中的最重要的”P“为何物

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